A powerful earthquake of 7,6 on the Richter scale shook of West Sumatra on the afternoon of September 30, 2009. The earthquake caused major 1,195 people died, 619 people seriously injured, 1,179 people slightly injured, 2 people missing, and 6,554 people had to evacuate. There were 119,005 houses damaged, 73,733 houses middle damaged, and 78,802 lightly damaged. The disaster emerge sadness and deep trauma to the entire population. More ten thousand people requiring long term assistance.
However, it build the awareness of community radio activists in Padang Pariaman District to develop a Disaster Information System Based Community (DIS-BC). The reason to DIS-BC development is the government’s performance in handling the victims and the distribution of aid was bad. The aid distribution through a long chain of bureaucracy so that victims were not handled quickly. The condition was aggravated by government-owned data not accurate, such as the number of victims and the needs of victims.
Data accuracy is very important in disaster management. If data is accurate, policy-makers will take quickly right policy. Disaster data management should be done before any disaster come. Governments and citizens will know how the level of vulnerability of the area, the needs of victims, evacuation route and the safe locations to evacuation. Unfortunately, when the earthquake happened in West Sumatra in September 30, 2009 it is just a dream. This condition was impact to big quantitative victim of disaster in this area.
Padang Sago FM was established to response the problems above. In early, Padang Sago FM, emergency response radio, was established by the Combine Resource Institution (CRI), a non government organization in Jogjakarta. With simple equipments, a week after the earthquake, Padang Sago FM started broadcasting on 107 FM frequencies. Furthermore, local people involve to radio activities, include women and children.
Padang Sago FM studio is located in Simpang Pelita, Korong Lapau Bayur, Nagari Koto Dalam, Padang Sago Subdistrict, Padang Pariaman Regency. Padang Sago Subdistrict consists of three villages, Nagari Koto Dalam, Nagari Koto Baru, and Nagari Batu Kalang. This area is very badly damaged although no residents had died. Thousands of houses and government buildings were severely damaged. Broadcasts activities start from 08.00 am until 11:00 pm using the Indonesian language and Minang language.
The first aims, to make the listener aware that live in disaster areas. Padang Sago FM make Public Service Announcement (PSA). In addition, the daily broadcasting Padang Sago FM consist of how to access aid from various donor agencies, how to pass safely transition, how to build earthquake-resistant houses, overcome health problems arise after earthquake, and a general overview of the course of disaster management efforts. In other hand, to get the validity data they applied the principles of journalism. Furthermore, the news was broadcast at 07.00-08.00 pm. It called Kabar Nagari.
Women Involvement in Radio
In the early establishment of the radio, the involvement of women was very limited. The lack of the women involvement in community radio cause women’s issues was marginalized. The issue can not properly appreciated. For example, most women in West Sumatra hold the Islamic religion and Minang tradition. When they are in the barracks, they are difficult to get privacy to change clothes and breastfeeding.
The impact of male domination, the radio management less sensitive to domestic roles that are still imposed on women. A simple example is the choosing of meeting time. As a result of their domestic roles, women can not attend meetings at 04.30 pm until 07.00 pm and at night. At that time, most women cook and serve the household needs. In Padang Sago, people think that women who active outside the home after 09.00 pm is still considered unethical.
Although the number of women activists in Padang Sago FM are not a lot, they can play a major role in the development of radio. Desmawati (22) is very good at holding program managers. She develops broadcasting activities using Minang traditional communication principles (mandaki, mandatar, malereng, manurun) and it makes Padang Sago FM loved by his audience. Another female announcer, like Anisa, Rani, Rini, Mimi, and Devi has a good respon from the audience. Finally, the citizens allow their daughter to participate in their community radio activities.
To maintain the involvement of women in community radio, they implement “discrimination” policy. On the strategic position, it is fulfilled by women. The author is director of the radio. Two of four strategic position are women. Padang Sago FM considers the cultural roles inherent in women. Padang Sago FM avoids meeting on women’s time.
The involvement of women in radio led to women’s issues disseminated via radio. For example, Padang Sago FM inform women in the evacuation place. The reporter interview some women who are breastfeeding, pregnant, menstruating, and old age. They are vulnerable groups during disasters. Without good nutrition, milk production for their children will decrease and the result is less nutrition for their baby. The women who are in pregnant whose malnutrition can result in miscarriage. Problems also arise in women who were menstruating at the time, they need a sanitary napkin.
From the above information, Padang Sago FM aware the impact of disasters that different for women and men. Because of the differences effects so they also require different assistance. Ironically, during the emergency response, assistance provided to victims are often only of instant noodles, rice, and lots of canned food. These items are clearly important but not sufficient. Donors should not forget underwear, women dress in accordance with the local culture (long dress), your child’s diet, sanitary napkins, and etc.
Besides women, Padang Sago FM involve children in broadcasting activities. Initiative to broadcast emerged from themselves. After school, children come to play in the studio. They practice the computer and watch the radio crew announcing activities. Then, they request to be trained as broadcaster. Devi (11) is one of children broadcasters who have brought radio program for 90 minutes. She is host of Sehat Bareng Komunitas (popular health tips) program which aired 01.00 pm until 02.30 pm. Today, Devi is a student of Padang Sago 07 Elementary School.
In previous broadcast activity, Devi accompanied by senior broadcasters, then she advanced to bring a broadcast program. The presence of children announcer bring different colour in the radio. The teachers and parents strongly support these activities. At their airing program, most of the listener are adult. They excited and got new experiences from it.